We can't see the images, because you just inserted the path to the files on your computer. In the future, if you want to attach an image, look in the "Additional Options" section below where you type your message. There's a section called "Attach Files" which allows you to attach files to your posting. You don't get to choose where the images appear in your post, but it is the simplest way to go.
You mention that you have a replacement iPhone. I think this is what probably happened:
You had Mac and iPhone syncing just fine. Then, some tragedy snuffed the iPhone, and you got a replacement. You installed OmniFocus on the new iPhone, but enough had changed that OmniFocus concluded that your databases were no longer related (I believe this can happen if you restore a backup on one client, and have made changes since the backup on another). When it noticed this incompatibility during the first sync attempt, it asked you which one to keep, and your choice of the sync database meant that your local changes were discarded. Had you chosen the device database, any changes made on the Mac since the time the iPhone's database was restored might have been lost(*), so don't beat yourself up too much about it. Most of the time, taking the sync database is the right answer.
At this point, the two are now syncing properly, so if you make changes on the iPhone and sync, they should make it over to the Mac without further incident. In the future, if you have to replace your iPhone, sync it before doing any changes, and you'll avoid this pain. In fact, always doing a sync before doing a bunch of work on the iPhone isn't a bad idea, so that you're always sure you've got the latest data.
(*) I think the Mac backs up a copy of its database when it encounters this situation, and with some help from the Omni support folks, it would be possible to recapture any changes that were lost, though it is going to be a tedious job if there are a lot of them. Best to avoid the situation entirely! :-)